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© 2020 Diverse Health Hub, LLC

kidney cancer hub

what is kidney cancer?

Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

latest program

What Treatment Options Are Available for Patients Diagnosed with Renal Medullary Carcinoma?

Dr. Pavlos Msaouel shares how patients can effectively self -advocate if diagnosed with Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC). First, a patient must know that treatment for RMC differs from other kidney cancers, so it is necessary to seek experts familiar with the particulars of RMC. Second, patients should reach out to communities who participate in RMC clinical trials.

 
 

Symptoms

Signs of renal cell cancer include blood in the urine and a lump in the abdomen.


These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by renal cell cancer or by other conditions. There may be no signs or symptoms in the early stages. Signs and symptoms may appear as the tumor grows. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Blood in the urine.

  • A lump in the abdomen.

  • A pain in the side that doesn't go away.

  • Loss of appetite.

  • Weight loss for no known reason.

  • Anemia.

diagnosis

Tests that examine the abdomen and kidneys are used to diagnose renal cell cancer.


The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

  • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.

  • Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.

  • Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.

  • CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the abdomen and pelvis, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

  • Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. To do a biopsy for renal cell cancer, a thin needle is inserted into the tumor and a sample of tissue is withdrawn.

 

Types

Renal Medullary Carcinoma

  • RMC is a particularly aggressive, rare form of Kidney Cancer that predominantly affects youth who have the sickle cell trait, or sickle cell disease. More information is available on our dedicated RMC hub. (Link to come soon.)

 

stages

Stage 1: 

In stage I, the tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found in the kidney only.

Stage 2: 

In stage II, the tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found in the kidney only.

Stage 3: 

In stage III, one of the following is found:

  • the cancer in the kidney is any size and cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; or

  • cancer has spread to blood vessels in or near the kidney (renal vein or vena cava), to the fat around the structures in the kidney that collect urine, or to the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.

Stage 4: 

In stage IV, one of the following is found:

  • cancer has spread beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may have spread into the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer or to nearby lymph nodes; or

  • cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, liver, lungs, brain, adrenal glands, or distant lymph nodes.

 
 

Risk Factors

More information coming soon.

 

Treatment

Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer


This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for kidney (renal cell) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names.


Afinitor (Everolimus)
Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus)
Aldesleukin
Avastin (Bevacizumab)
Avelumab
Axitinib
Bavencio (Avelumab)
Bevacizumab
Cabometyx (Cabozantinib-S-Malate)
Cabozantinib-S-Malate
Everolimus
IL-2 (Aldesleukin)
Inlyta (Axitinib)
Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin)
Ipilimumab
Keytruda (Pembrolizumab)
Lenvatinib Mesylate
Lenvima (Lenvatinib Mesylate)
Mvasi (Bevacizumab)
Nexavar (Sorafenib Tosylate)
Nivolumab
Opdivo (Nivolumab)
Pazopanib Hydrochloride
Pembrolizumab
Proleukin (Aldesleukin)
Sorafenib Tosylate
Sunitinib Malate
Sutent (Sunitinib Malate)
Temsirolimus
Torisel (Temsirolimus)
Votrient (Pazopanib Hydrochloride)
Yervoy (Ipilimumab)

 

Noted disparities

Renal Medullary Carcinoma affects young African and African Americans predominantly. This rare cancer disproportionately afflicts an underrepresented group because it coincides with sickle cell disease.

 
 
 

programs

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What Treatment Options Are Available for Patients Diagnosed with Renal Medullary Carcinoma?

Dr. Pavlos Msaouel shares how patients can effectively self -advocate if diagnosed with Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC). First, a patient must know that treatment for RMC differs from other kidney cancers, so it is necessary to seek experts familiar with the particulars of RMC. Second, patients should reach out to communities who participate in RMC clinical trials.

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What Health Disparities Exist for Patients with Renal Medullary Carcinoma?

Dr. Pavlos Msaouel discusses disparities that exist for patients with Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC). Young African Americans as well as Nigerians on a global scale are underdiagnosed due to lack of resources such as health insurance and research reports.

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What Steps Can Patients Take To Detect Renal Medullary Carcinoma Early?

Dr. Pavlos Msaouel breaks down the steps patients can take to detect Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC) early. First, patients must know whether they carry the sickle cell trait or not. Second, if blood is present in the urine, going to see a doctor immediately for further testing. Third, if you are indeed diagnosed with RMC, it’s important to contact physicians who are dedicated to treating this cancer. Lastly, get in touch with patient advocates and communities so you are not alone.

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Are Sickle Cell Disease Patients More Susceptible to Renal Medullary Carcinoma?

Dr. Pavlos Msaouel of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center discusses whether patients with sickle cell disease or who carry the sickle cell trait may be at increased risk for renal medullary carcinoma (RMC).

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How Can Providers Combat Inequities in the Care of Renal Medullary Carcinoma Patients?

Dr. Msaouel tackles the question of how providers can combat inequities in the care of Renal Medullary Carcinoma (RMC) patients. Patients, especially young African Americans, go undiagnosed because of inadequate awareness and screening of RMC. Providers need to raise more awareness about RMC in the US and globally.

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What is Renal Medullary Carcinoma?

Respected oncologist, Dr. Pavlos Msaouel of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, explains what renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is and what symptoms typically present at diagnosis.

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